Friday, May 29, 2009

refraction and reflection with respect to Fiber Optical Cable

Describe refraction and reflection with respect to Fiber Optical Cable? [15]


Optical Fiber: Optical fiber is made of glass or plastic.It transmits signals in the form of light
The Nature of Light
The speed of light
–300,000 Km/sec in a vacuum
–Depends on the density of the medium through which it is traveling
–The higher the density, the slower the speed
Refraction:Light travels in a straight line as long as it is moving through a single uniform structure If a ray of light traveling through one substance enters another (more or less dense) substance, its speed changes abruptly causing the ray to change direction.This phenomenon is called Refraction Example of Refraction
A pencil sticking out of a glass of water appears bent because the light by which we see it changes direction as it moves from air to water.
Direction of Refraction Direction in which a light is refracted depends upon the density of a medium

A beam of light moves from a less dense into a more dense medium bend towards vertical axis
Incident angle is ‘I’ and Refracted angle is ‘R’
Critical Angle:

o We have a beam of light moving from a more dense to a less dense medium
o We gradually increase the angle of incidence measured from vertical axis
o As angle of incidence increases, so does the angle of refraction
o The angle at which refracted line lies on the horizontal axis is called
Critical Angle
• Reflection

o When angle of incidence becomes greater than critical angle, reflection occurs
o Light no longer passes into the less denser medium but is reflected back into the same medium
o The Angle of Incidence (I) = Angle of Reflection (R)
Optical Fibers & Reflection :
o Optical fibers use Reflection to guide light through a channel
o A glass or plastic CORE is surrounded by a CLADDING of less dense glass or plastic
o The difference in the density of CORE and CLADDING is such that the beam of light moving through the core is reflected off the cladding
o Information is encoded onto a beam of light as a series of ON-OFF flashes that represent 1 and 0 bits

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