Thursday, July 30, 2009

Quiz of MB


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Question # 11 of 20 ( Start time: 07:19:29 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Mark borrows $8,000 and then repays $8,600 to ABC bank. What is the amount of interest in this payment?
Select correct option:



$600

$500

$400

$100

Question # 12 of 20 ( Start time: 07:19:52 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which one of the following is the narrowest definition of money?
Select correct option:



C

M1

M2

M3

Question # 13 of 20 ( Start time: 07:20:07 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The default premium:
Select correct option:



Is positive for a U.S. Treasury bond

Must always be less than 0 (zero)

Is also known as the risk spread

Is assigned by a bond rating agency

Question # 15 of 20 ( Start time: 07:22:30 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The return on holding a bond till its maturity is called:
Select correct option:



Coupon rate

Yield to maturity

Current yield

Internal rate of return

Question # 16 of 20 ( Start time: 07:22:47 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The Fed lacks complete control over the money supply because it cannot perfectly predict:
Select correct option:



Discount borrowing by the banks

Shifts from deposits to currency

Excess reserves held by banks

Any of the above

Question # 17 of 20 ( Start time: 07:23:38 PM ) Total Marks: 1
___________ is the strategy of reducing overall risk by making two investments with opposing risks.
Select correct option:



Spreading the risk

Standard deviation

Hedging the risk

Variance

Question # 18 of 20 ( Start time: 07:24:39 PM ) Total Marks: 1
An index number is a valuable tool because:
Select correct option:



The number by itself provides all of the useful information needed

The index provides a meaningful measurement scale to calculate percentage changes

The index is more stable than the data it reflects

It does not require any calculations to compute percentage changes



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MB QUIZ


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Question # 2 of 20 ( Start time: 07:14:21 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The____________ are an assessment of the creditworthiness of the corporate issuer.
Select correct option:



Bond yield

Bond ratings

Bond risk

Bond price

Question # 3 of 20 ( Start time: 07:14:53 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The risk premium of a bond will:
Select correct option:



Higher for investment-grade bonds than for high-yield bonds

Positive but small if the risk of default is zero

Decrease when the default risk rises

Increase when the risk of default rises

Question # 5 of 20 ( Start time: 07:16:30 PM ) Total Marks: 1
One argument for an independent central bank is:
Select correct option:



Without independence competent people would not take a position in a central bank

Successful monetary policy requires a long time horizon usually well beyond the next election of most public officials

Politicians have a long-run focus that is not well tuned to addressing economic problems

Central bankers have a short run focus that usually corrects problems faster

Question # 6 of 20 ( Start time: 07:17:08 PM ) Total Marks: 1
We need __________ to carry out day to day transactions.
Select correct option:



Money

Bonds

Stocks

Loans

Question # 7 of 20 ( Start time: 07:17:29 PM ) Total Marks: 1
If information in a financial market is asymmetric, this means:
Select correct option:



Borrowers and lenders have perfect information

Borrowers would have more information than lenders

Borrowers and lenders have the same information

Lenders lack any information

Question # 8 of 20 ( Start time: 07:17:58 PM ) Total Marks: 1
If YTM equals the coupon rate the price of the bond is __________.
Select correct option:



Greater than its face value

Lower than its face value

Equals to its face value

Insufficient information

Question # 9 of 20 ( Start time: 07:18:26 PM ) Total Marks: 1
An increase in the expected inflation shifts the bond demand to the _________.
Select correct option:



Right

Left

No change

All of the given options

Question # 10 of 20 ( Start time: 07:18:51 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Requiring a large deductible on the part of an insured is one way insurers treat the problem of:
Select correct option:



Free-riding

Moral hazard

Adverse selection

The Lemons market



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MGT411 Quiz updates


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Question # 12 of 20 ( Start time: 08:13:08 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The money aggregate M2 includes each of the following EXCEPT:
Select correct option:



Small denomination time deposits.

Retail Money Market Mutual fund shares

U.S. Treasury bills

M1

Question # 13 of 20 ( Start time: 08:13:38 PM ) Total Marks: 1
If a member of the non-bank public purchases a government bond from the Fed with currency:
Select correct option:



Reserves will fall

The monetary base will fall

Reserves will remain unchanged

Monetary base will fall and reserves will remain unchanged

Question # 14 of 20 ( Start time: 08:15:03 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which one of the following is NOT true for the expectation hypothesis?
Select correct option:



Risk free interest rate can be computed

There is uncertainty in the future

Identifying yield of bond today that will be available next year

It focuses on risk free interest rate and the risk premium

Question # 15 of 20 ( Start time: 08:16:30 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Coupon bonds make the annual payments which are called as ___________.
Select correct option:



Annual payments

Fixed payments

Coupon payments

Maturity payment

Question # 16 of 20 ( Start time: 08:17:55 PM ) Total Marks: 1
One thing that is true about economic policy in the U.S. is:
Select correct option:



Monetary and Fiscal policy often times conflict

Fiscal and monetary policy never conflict

Monetary policy ultimately controls fiscal policy since the Fed controls the money supply

Fiscal policy ultimately controls monetary policy since Congress can control the Fed's budget

Question # 17 of 20 ( Start time: 08:19:18 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The Segmented Markets Theory of term structure suggests that:
Select correct option:



Investors have strong preferences for bonds of a particular maturity

Investors have no preference for short-term bonds over long-term bonds, or vice versa

Interest rates on long-term bonds strongly influence the demand for short-term bonds

Bonds of different maturities are perfect substitutes for each other

Question # 18 of 20 ( Start time: 08:20:48 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The____________ are an assessment of the creditworthiness of the corporate issuer.
Select correct option:



Bond yield

Bond ratings

Bond risk

Bond price

Question # 19 of 20 ( Start time: 08:21:23 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The reason for the government to get involved in the financial system is to:
Select correct option:



Protect investors

Ensure the stability of the financial system

Protect bank customers from monopolistic exploitation

All of the given options

Question # 20 of 20 ( Start time: 08:22:37 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The return on holding a bond till its maturity is called:
Select correct option:



Coupon rate

Yield to maturity

Current yield

Internal rate of return





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Quiz of MGT411


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Currency-to-deposit ratio is a factor that affects the quantity of money. This factor is controlled by which of the following?
Select correct option:



Central bank

Bank regulators

Commercial banks

Non bank public
Question # 7 of 20 ( Start time: 08:07:59 PM ) Total Marks: 1
One argument for an independent central bank is:
Select correct option:



Without independence competent people would not take a position in a central bank

Successful monetary policy requires a long time horizon usually well beyond the next election of most public officials

Politicians have a long-run focus that is not well tuned to addressing economic problems

Central bankers have a short run focus that usually corrects problems faster

Question # 8 of 20 ( Start time: 08:09:21 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Liquidity is the risk that is arises as a result of which one of the following consequences?
Select correct option:



It arises when loan is not repaid

It arises because of sudden demands of funds

It arises when two sides of the balance sheet do not match up

It arises when banks make additional profit by using derivatives

Question # 9 of 20 ( Start time: 08:09:55 PM ) Total Marks: 1
If YTM is greater than the coupon rate the price of the bond is __________.
Select correct option:



Greater than its face value

Lower than its face value

Equals to its face value

All of the given options

Question # 10 of 20 ( Start time: 08:10:50 PM ) Total Marks: 1
With direct finance we mean which of the following?
Select correct option:



Individuals (or firms) borrow directly from the savers

Individuals (or firms) borrow directly from banks.

Individuals deposit savings directly in banks.

Firms deposit savings directly in banks.

Question # 11 of 20 ( Start time: 08:12:08 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Which of the following type/s of transaction/s affect the balance sheets of both the central bank and the banking system?
Select correct option:



An open market operation

A foreign exchange intervention

Central bank’s extension of a discount loan

All of the given options





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MGT411 Quiz




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Beside default risk which one if the following factor affects the return on bond?
Select correct option:

Taxes

Monetary policy

Junk bonds

Debt
Question # 2 of 20 ( Start time: 08:02:37 PM )
The coupon rate of bond is:
Select correct option:



Another term for the current yield

Another term for the yield to maturity

Could not be calculated for a zero-coupon bond

None of the above
Question # 3 of 20 ( Start time: 08:03:26 PM )
Which of the following statement is true about the relation ship between bond ,coupon payment and interest?
Select correct option:



Coupon payments fall, the interest rate falls, and Bond price will rise

Coupon payments rises, the interest rate falls, and Bond price will rise

Coupon payments fall, the interest rate falls, and Bond price will fall

Coupon payments rise, the interest rate falls, and Bond price will fall

Question # 4 of 20 ( Start time: 08:04:44 PM ) Total Marks: 1
The monetary liabilities of the Federal Reserve include:
Select correct option:



Government securities and discount loans

Currency in circulation and reserves

Government securities and reserves

Currency in circulation and reserves
Question # 5 of 20 ( Start time: 08:06:12 PM ) Total Marks: 1
Banking is risky because __________.
Select correct option:



Depository institutions are highly leveraged

Banks do in all the lines of banking trades

Banks pay less for the deposits

All of the given options

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MGT411- Money & Banking (Session - 2)



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Question No: 46 ( Marks: 5 )
"Principal function of Commercial banks is to receive demand deposits and to make short-term loans".Discuss

Question No: 47 ( Marks: 5 )
Give brief explanation of the following.
What is reserve requiremnet?
How is it controlled?
What is its impact on economy?

Question No: 48 ( Marks: 10 )
a) If people suddenly lost faith in the banking system, what would happen to the demand for money? What impact would their loss of confidence have on inflation?

b) Why is inflation higher than money growth in high inflation countries and lower than money growth in low inflation countries?


Question No: 49 ( Marks: 10 )
Discuss the force of real interest rate on:
I. Monetary policy
II. Aggregate demand



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MGT411- Money & Banking MCQ's




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Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If required reserves are expressed by RR ; the required reserve rate by rD and deposits by D; the simple deposit expansion multiplier is expressed as:

► rDD
► (1/rD) D
► 1/rD
► rD times 10

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The _____________ shows how the quantity of money is related to the monetary base:
► Money multiplier
► Deposit expansion multiplier
► Fiscal multiplier
► Tax multiplier

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Central banks today place most of their focus on which of the following?

► The unemployment rate
► The quantity of M2
► Interest rates
► Controlling the size of the money multiplier

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statement is true regarding monetary policy tools?

► The Fed currently uses a quantity tool for monetary policy
► The required reserve rate is the most easily observable tool
► The federal funds rate is not the best tool because it fails the controllable test of a good monetary policy tool.
► The central banks cannot set a quantity and a price tool simultaneously

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Inflation can be thought of as which of the following?

► A decrease in the price of money
► An increase in the price of money
► No change in the price of money, just in the supply of money
► No change in the price of money, just in the demand for money

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If a central bank sets an explicit inflation target it would require which one of the following?

► More emphasis on the interest rate target and less on a money target
► To shift their focus entirely to a nominal interest rate target
► Willingness to live with more volatility in the interest rate
► To give up control of targeting the monetary base

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Inflation in the long run would be determined by which one of the following?

► The exchange rate
► Aggregate demand
► The rate of money growth
► Aggregate supply

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Liquidity is the risk that is arises as a result of which one of the following consequences?
► It arises because of sudden demands of funds
► It arises when two sides of the balance sheet do not match up
► It arises when banks make additional profit by using derivatives
► It arises when loan is not repaid

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
For securities issued across international borders, changes in the legal and governmental environment can make it difficult for the investor to collect. Such a risk would be termed as:
► Credit risk
► Sovereign risk
► Insolvency risk
► Interest rate risk

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In general, if the financial institution's balance sheet displays assets and liabilities that are "mis-matched" to a significant degree, the institution faces:
► Operational risk
► Sovereign risk
► Interest rate risk
► Liquidity risk

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The idea that central banks should be independent of political pressure is an idea that:
► Is included in Federal Reserve Act in 1913
► Is relatively new
► Every central bank was founded upon
► Became quite popular in the early 1900's

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
One thing that is true about economic policy in the U.S. is that:
► Monetary and Fiscal policy often times conflict
► Fiscal and monetary policy never conflict
► Monetary policy ultimately controls fiscal policy
► Fiscal policy ultimately controls monetary policy

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is the component of monetary base?
► Currency in the hands of the public
► Reserves of the banking system
► Vault cash plus deposits at the central bank
► All of the given options

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In the long run, if we ignore changes in velocity then which of the following statement is true?
► Inflation will equal money growth less the growth in potential output
► Inflation will equal the rate of money growth
► Inflation will be zero
► Inflation will equal money growth plus the growth in potential output

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Complete crowding-out will occur if:
► The money supply rises when Government purchases increases
► An increase in Government purchases does not change Consumption
► Taxes rise when Government purchases increases
► An increase in Government purchases causes an equal fall in Consumption, Investment, and Net Exports

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
An increase in the money supply will do all the following except:
► Increase real GDP in the short-run
► Increase Price level in the long-run
► Increase Price level in the short-run
► Increase real GDP in the long-run

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
An increase in capital stock, which shifts long-run supply out, will:
► Lower prices and will not change output
► Increase prices and will not change output
► Lower prices and will increase output
► Increase prices as well as output

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Components of M1 DO NOT include which one of the following?
► Currency in the hands of public
► Demand deposits
► Small denominations time deposit
► Checkable deposits

Question No: 42 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which one of the following is the unique problem that banks face?
► They hold illiquid assets to meet liquid liabilities
► They hold liquid assets to meet illiquid liabilities
► They hold liquid assets to meet liquid liabilities
► Both banks' assets and liabilities are illiquid

Question No: 43 ( Marks: 3 )
Write down the categories of assets in the balance sheet of commercial banks.

Question No: 44 ( Marks: 3 )
How Central banks link tools to meet their objectives?

Question No: 45 ( Marks: 3 )
Name the factors that affect the transaction demand for money.

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MGT411- Money & Banking 2009



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Question No: 13 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
__________ measures how efficiently a bank uses its assets.

► Return on Assets
► Return on Equity
► Bank Capital
► Bank Profitability

Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The procedure that estimates the interest rate sensitivity of a bank's assets and liabilities is called ___________.
► Managing credit risk
► Gap analysis
► Trading risk minimization
► Managing liquidity risk

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
An insurance company provides liability insurance to a bakery protecting the owner against claims from customers. One area of coverage is protection against food poisoning claims. The insurance company may periodically send an employee into the bakery to observe food preparation and food storage processes. The insurance company is trying to avoid which of the following?
► Paying claims
► Adverse selection
► Moral hazard
► Transaction cost

Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is not a function of Investment banks?

► Research and advice for investors
► Immediate sale of assets
► Access to payment system
► Access to spectrum of assets allowed diversification

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Funds of depository institution are primarily used in which of the following?

► Corporate bonds, Government bonds, Stocks, Mortgage
► Cash, Loan, Securities
► Stocks, Government bonds, corporate bonds, commercial papers
► Commercial papers, Bonds

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
All of the following are the primary sources of funds for depository institutions EXCEPT?

► Checkable deposits
► Savings and time deposits
► Short term loans
► Borrowings from other banks

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which one of the following refers to the risk assessment and loss reimbursement guarantee by the individual risk experts of the relevant field?
► Underwriting process
► Insurance process
► Research process
► None of the given options

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The "trade off" which can impact bank's likelihood of faliure is described as:
► The larger the bank in asset size the more likely it will fail
► The more competitive the banking environment, the more likely the bank will fail
► The more profitable the bank, the less liquid the bank will be and the more likely it will fail
► The greater the regulation from government the more likely the bank will fail

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
On which of the following success of monetary policy depends upon?
► It may be on the chance or by luck
► The institutional environment
► Competent people in responsible positions
► Both the institutional environment and Competent people in responsible positions

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A central bank's balance sheet would categorize each of the following as liabilities EXCEPT:
► Currency
► Gold
► Reserves
► Accounts of the commercial banks

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If the required reserve rate is ten percent and banks do not hold any excess reserves and there are no changes in currency holdings, a $2 million open market purchase by the Fed will result in deposit creation of:
► $20 million
► $18 million
► $2 million
► $1,800,000

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MGT411- Money & Banking (Session - 2)

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Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Investing was an activity reserved for only __________ in the past.
► Business men
► Traders
► Wealthy people
► Stock brokers

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Financial instruments are evolved just as ___________.
► Currency
► Stock
► Bond
► Commodity

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following market allowed networks of dealers that are connected electronically?
► New York Stock Exchange
► NASDAQ
► Large exchanges in London
► Large exchanges in Tokyo

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If at 5% interest rate, $100 payment has a PV of $90.70. Then what will be the PV value of $200 payment? (Without applying formula).
► $45.35
► $272.1
► $181.4
► $362.8

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
_________ measures the probability of worst outcome in any investment project.
► Variance
► Standard deviation
► Value at risk
► Hedging

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If the annual interest rate is 6% (.06); the price of a one year Treasury bill would be:
► $94.00
► $94.33
► $95.25
► $96.10

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following best describes default risk?
► The chance the issuer will be unable to make interest payments or repay principal
► The chance the issuer will retire the debt early
► The chance the issuing firm will be sold to another firm
► The chance the issuer will sell more debt

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Mr. Ghazanfar wants to invest Rs.2,000 in a bond. If this bond is expected to receive a return of Rs.100 per month and a tax of Rs.3 will be deducted on this return. Then Mr. Ghazanfar made his decision by considering which of the following fact?
► He is attracted by Rs.100 return per month
► He considers Rs.100 less deduction for tax i.e.Rs.97
► He takes into consideration only the portion of tax which is deducted
► His decision will not be affected by any of the given factors

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Calculate tax implication on Bond yields. Consider a one year bond face value Rs.100 (issued by Government) with coupon rate of 6%.What is the income of bond that is received at maturity? (Tax rate is 30%).
► Rs.6
► Rs.1.80
► Rs.4.20
► Rs.7.80

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statement is true for the given sentence, "that tax affects the bond return"?
► Because only interest income they receive from bond is taxable
► Because principal amount and interest income they receive from bond is taxable
► Because bond holders are taxpayers
► Because all bond is sold with a condition that tax will be deducted from its return

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The fact that common stockholders are residual claimants means:
► The stockholders receive their dividends before any other residuals are paid
► The stockholders receive the remains after everyone else is paid
► The stockholders are paid any past due dividends before other claims are paid
► The common stockholders are responsible for all corporate debts

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If a bank sells off all of its assets and pays all of its liabilities the remaining amount would be __________.

► Net profit
► Net worth
► Reserves
► Excess reserves
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Sunday, July 26, 2009

Get HEC Scholar Ship

Get HEC Scholar Ships.
A scholarship is an award of access to an institution, or a financial aid award for a student to further education. Scholarships are awarded on various criteria usually reflecting the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award.

Scholarships may be classified as.

* Merit: The recipient may be determined by students' athletic, academic, artistic or other abilities. The monetary value may be negligible, if the scholarship is meant to motivate the student and promote the study of the subject. The largest scholarships are usually merit-based.
* Need: This is financial aid for which the student and family's financial situation is a primary factor. Such scholarships cover all or part of tution and perhaps living costs. Often need-based private scholarships require the awardees to be distinguished students, as the founding deed may include a phrases such as "for the studies of founder's favourite subject in founder's favourite institution of higher education for a talented youths of limited means from founder's home town or county or state ".
* Sociology: This is financial aid where applicants must initially qualify by race, religion, or national origin. After filtering the applicants based on their ethnicity, additional factors are taken into consideration to determine the final recipients.
* Institutional: These are scholarships awarded by a specific college or university (institution) to a student planning to attend that institution.
* General: Scholarships may be for reasons of the student's association with the objectives of the sponsoring organization. For example, some corporations give scholarships to their employees' children or based upon academic success.
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Thursday, July 23, 2009

Result and classes starting schedule

This is the schedule for the next semester. Kindly feel free to query at vuhelps@gmail.com . Also register with vuhelps and join the chat for the discussion.



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Vuhelps

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

Vu voice chat and webcam chat share documents

Our vu page now got updated with the chat server you may chat with friends share documents with them and also can do more things. it is enabled with voice and cam. So its better to do the group chat and check it with your self see the image and the server is in the end of the page just first login by clicking on the connect fellow and then ur nick will appear otherwise u will come as guest. so for new user kindly register see the snap shots which show the working of
it.


Click on sign in for registeration u can register with a google yahoo skype ids or an open id. So after that you will see that you are sign in with your name. so then scroll down the page and see the chat room like for example vuhelps nick name is there that's mean it is login with vuhelps name. so kindly do share your information and invite your friends. this bar which is shown in figure its called social bar.
When you dont take membership by default you come to chat room with Guest name if already a guest is sitting then you will get a number with guest12685 like this.So it is recomended that come in chat with your member name.

For more information please feel free to contact with vuhelps@gmail.com.
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Tuesday, July 21, 2009

Vu password threaths

Virtual Univeristy (VU) Passwords are under threat.

Virtual university is distance learning education system. It provides its student a login name and a password. From which we access the vulms (Virtual University Learning Management System). When we take admission to Virtual University they provide us a login name and password via mail to our home address. So then we watch the orientation inside the cd and following the instructions we follow the procedure and login to our accounts and do get the assignments do quires to our teachers on MDB(Moderate Discussion Board). The password and the login name we got lets see what they are really.

VU Login Name: As we know the login name is our vu roll number and also our email id and vulms id. So it looks like (MC090205531) .

VU Password: Login name also has a password which is generated by following an algorithm and generated by a computer example (7gudgks). It looks like this.

What we should do?

Its good practice after getting the login name and password from vu. We should change the password. We can’t change the login name.

How a password looks like?

Password should be alpha numeric. Which means it should has the alphabets in capital and small letters and within the combination of the numeric values. Example EraOed84Tg83A.

What should be the length of password?

A good and strong password should has the length which is recommended 8 character’s. So by this following the alpha numeric and the password length you should have a very good password which can’t be guess like Pakistan, LOVE, City name etc. Remember your password is the key which will give you the full security inside the vu. It’s the thing u suppose that you got the license of sitting in a virtual class with your own identity.

What is the good habit to increase the password security?

Well the recommendation is to change password after a week if not then change it at least after a month. Its good practice. Because now days we know that we use our vulms from different locations some of us are doing jobs or travel to different places and get access to our vulms via internet. So they system might be infected with a Trojan horse which can send your password to the sated email and the person can access your email or your account. I will tell you this in more detail some other time with full protection solutions.

What should not be the password?

Password should not be your name your family name class name teacher name etc. IT should be change which can’t be guess by dictionary method (Hacking technique following some algorithm).

What is the real threat if someone get the password?

Well a lot of things can happen if someone get your vulms and email password. Let me tell you. Suppose you got assignment so someone can upload a garbage file and you can’t do send it again or you have to give a lot of explanation. Your login might be misuse like someone send wrong questions to MDB So the impression will goes against you and you might get in a big trouble. The most risky think that a password hacker can do with you. He can simply drop your whole program. I don’t want tell that thing but if someone is interested then may email me on vuhelps@gmail.com . I am not telling because some students can check this to other students even they don’t know how to. So it should be not mention here.

I geuss these are some recommendations by following these instruction your life will be easy.

Regards

Vuhelps

Saturday, July 18, 2009

Make computer faster manually

For answer of this kindly visit “Make computer fast answer” in blogachive.

Computer is very advanced now days also the application programs we install on them are also getting heaver day by day. When we install a program after one month we get the updates for it. So when we update our software and then it take more memory to work fine other wise it gives that low memory sign on the task bar. So one should over come on it. We always update application software and don’t work on it. Just want to satisfied that we got all the latest versions on our pc even if we don’t want use them all but we still want the newer version its by nature. But as a student of Vu we should learn that if a software is working fine and giving the desired work so we don’t need to update or install the newer version for this we have to install the new memory or may be increase the processing speed so by installing the newer hardware. So it will be expensive and the old one will go in scarp. No body will be willing to buy it. So that’s why here I am pointing out some use full techniques which I personal used to increase the efficiency of the computer and its working fine. But you should look up them.

Internet Messenger’s.
Most of us use internet messenger the very famous internet messengers are MSN, Yahoo. Google Talk and Skype etc. when we install them all at once on our pc and when the windows boot up they take a lot of memory and put their self to the startup so when the windows start it take 2 to 3 minutes minimum.
Most of us now a days got the DSL connection so it automatically connect to the servers and get online. So it also take memory and don’t’ release it. I m pointing out these all because in the end I will tell you the result how to over come on them.
When going to chat rooms in yahoo messenger it take almost half of the compute memory and make computer slower and u have nothing to do by just restart and its not the right answer.

Internet Explorer.
We got a genuine internet explorer built-in with out windows xp or vista. But some of us prefer like google chrome, firefox or opera. Also some got the maximum speed and they prefer to install the newer version of internet explorer 8 (IE 8) even they don’t realize that their machine is not suitable for the updates they really don’t need this. But they do so. Then the result computer get slower day by day. Even some of us don’t delete the cookies of the computer and keep working on it. By default it delete cookies (Internet temporary) files after 20 days. So it also take memory and make computer slower. Actually we are not in habit to delete them manually.

Multimedia software’s.
Multimedia software’s are now a days online and they keep checking the updates and stuff like this so with this they are getting more memory when the computer is on and keep checking the updates and then like blink appear like msn messenger and say you need to update this plug-in.(Even we don’t need this one) some of us don’t know why we are installing this plug-in and for what purpose? Also when we play the music audio file we put the animations on it and the animations take the memory and make computer slower.

Installing Antivirus:
We install antivirus without consulting anybody which one is the best and which one take less memory and made for what machine. Some of us even install two antivirus and update them regularly (Which is good) but don’t need two. One works fine. When antivirus get expired we don’t uninstall it or we try but don’t know how it will be uninstall from our computer. So in the result it take more memory.

Installing Screen Savers and Games.
We are living in digital world now. So we want our machine to look like matrix (movie). So we install the screen savers from different websites and they take memory and make our computer very slow also we install games on our system and the games get the virus with their and also that machine is not for the working purpose its just for the gaming like we are now working for some multimedia troubleshooting analyst. It makes our computer slower and makes it crash sometime.

These are the few things which I mention and I will tell you how to over come them in a very gentle way without installing anything to your computer by just do it yourself manually. Which will give you expertise and you will learn more.
By clicking on the linking on the blogachive named
“Make computer fast answer”
Find the solutions.
vuhelps@gmail.com
Regards
Vuhelps

Make computer fast answer

Now lets look closely the solutions of these problems which we face in our real life.
Removing startup program’s:
When we install the program it also get in startup and when we boot the windows it also execute and connect to the internet and take resources which make computer slower. Even we don’t need it. But it still works like this. So to over come this problem we have to work on this small lab.
Click on start button then click on run and type msconfig and hit enter.
You will see this window and click on startup like I did. You can see the startup item here. Two messenger and also Microsoft office which I usually don’t use most of the time and u also don’t because of other work. So just unchecked them by clicking on the box and press ok button then it will ask you to restart your system.

Task manager:
Task manager is very useful thing which shows the process and memory and processing working to us and gives the immediate command to terminate any application on the spot. So for this we have to press CTRL+ALT+DEL by pressing these windows appear which is

Performance showing us the performance of the CPU here. Also the pf usage which is actually the memory So by this we can see the usage of the computer.
If we click on the application it will show us the running applications which we are running on the computer. The process shows the process which are running on the computer. So now I am telling you the very useful things which we ignore all the times and computer get slower.

It looks like this it shows all the running process. We also can terminate software’s which we don’t want to run any more by just selecting on this window and then press end process it will close from the memory and in real it deleted that process from the memory. So to close the yahoo messenger I will select it and then press the end process it will close from my computer. So now lets look it in a deeper a little bit. That suppose we are searching from the internet and we got install acrobat reader on our machine so we got a pdf file on computer and it find a file which is in PDF format we click on it and it load pdf and show us the file in the internet explorer then we just read it or save it to hard drive and start working on other program but actually the pdf is still running in the memory and it is taking memory like it is showing you the pdf file. So you have to terminate that from the task manage from end process then it will stop working and release the computer memory. Like this many more works so I tell you just give a try to your self and check it what you are running and if you terminate them then check the computer performance and the speed.

Unnecessary software’s:
We are in habit to install unnecessary software to our computer and then it is useless even we don’t uninstall them. So for this make sure you need the software and if you don’t then don’t install it and don’t go for the update if you don’t need the update.
These are some techniques which will help you a lot to over come and you kindly feel free to contact us for further information we are here to help you out.
vuhelps@gmail.com
Regards
Vuhelps







Thursday, July 16, 2009

USB 2.0 - Hi-Speed USB Page1


What is USB 2.0?
USB 2.0 is a complete overhaul to the Universal Serial Bus input/output bus protocol which allows much higher speeds than the older USB 1.1 standard did.

USB 1.1 allowed a maximum transfer rate of 12Mbits/second. That rate is now called 'USB.' Though some manufacturers label their products Full-Speed USB. Note that this seems a bit deceptive. Its easy to mistake Full-Speed for Hi-Speed.

As an aside, USB mice and keyboards need only 1.5Mbits/s to function. That performance level is also named 'USB' by the USB Promoter Group.

To sum it up, USB 2.0 specification incorporates three speeds: Hi-Speed, Full-Speed and Low-Speed. You as a consumer don't need to figure out all the jargons. Just keep in mind that only 'Hi-Speed USB' and 'USB' host and devices exist.

How do I know if my PC has USB 2.0?
You can identify whether your PC has Hi-Speed or not relatively easy. Open Device Manager and expand the Universal Serial Bus section. There should be an "Enhanced" USB host controller present.

Windows 98 systems may use a different name, because Hi-Speed USB drivers in these operating systems are not provided directly from Microsoft (Windows ME, 2000 and XP get their drivers through Windows Update).

These drivers are provided by the manufacturer, and may carry the maker's name (i.e. ADS, Belkin, IOGear, Siig, etc.). There should also be two standard version USB host controllers present as well. They are embedded in the USB chip which routes the differing USB speeds accordingly without user intervention.

There are currently 6 manufacturers of the Hi-Speed USB host silicon themselves:

ALi (Acer Labs)

Intel

NEC

SiS

VIA

nVidia (shows as "Standard" controller

Any other brand name that appears in Device Manager would likely be an add-in Hi-Speed USB PCI card. The makers above do not make add-in cards, but they do make the chips that are used in them.

How do troubleshoot "unknown device" error listed in Device Manager?

The USB device or the USB adapter requires its own power source. If your USB device or adapter came with an AC power "brick", try connecting it.

Here's a likely one - the front USB ports on your PC case may be misconnected. I've seen them that way from the factory. It's a good idea to check the connections against specifications. The standard order of connection is Red, White, Green, and Black. No more than 4 wires per USB bank are needed.

Defective device. Do not assume that all PC components work correctly out of the box. I've seen many new USB devices that do not work. If you can, try the device on another PC.

All drivers are not installed. Some devices will require installing the driver package before plugging in the device. Some devices will also require basic USB files from the Windows CD before the unit will function. The general rule is to always follow installation directions precisely and to have the Windows CD ready.

How fast is USB 2.0?
USB 2.0 has a raw data rate at 480Mbps, and it is rated 40 times faster than its predecessor interface, USB 1.1, which tops at 12Mbps. Originally, USB 2.0 was intended to go only as fast as 240Mbps.

How will consumers benefit from USB 2.0?
With speed 40 times more than that of USB 1.1, USB 2.0 broaden the range of external peripherals that can be used on a computer. Even with multiple high-speed peripherals connected to a USB 2.0 bus, the system will less likely to hit the bandwidth bottleneck. The new specification also inherits the current USB's Plug and Play and hot-swapping capability as well as providing backward compatibility for USB 1.1 hardware, allowing existing user base to upgrade seamlessly.

Do USB 2.0 & USB 1.1 hardware work interchangeably?
You may have heard that USB 2.0 is "backward-compatible" with USB 1.0/1.1 (Full-Speed USB). While that's true, USB 1.1 is also forward-compatible with USB 2.0. Whenever a system has USB 2.0 ports, you'll find the "Enhanced" USB controller in Device Manager, but you will also find two other USB controllers. These two to maintain backward compatibility to USB 1.1 devices. Each USB 2.0 host actually has 3 chips onboard. The USB controller routes signals to the correct controller chip depending on how a device is recognized. Where a device is physically plugged in has no bearing on how it is routed. All ports on a USB 2.0 motherboard can host any USB devices at all as long as the system and devices are healthy.

The vast majority of USB 2.0 devices will work on older PCs and Macs. None should flat-out fail unless there are other issues with the system. Hi-Speed USB devices will revert to Full-Speed operation when connected this way. Understand that Hi-Speed is at least ten times faster than Full-Speed in actual operation, so the speed difference is quite noticeable - unless you have never experienced Hi-Speed, of course.

When it comes to USB hub compatibility between USB 2.0 and USB 1.1, here some facts:

A powered hub is always preferable to unpowered.

USB hub ports are not as capable or flexible as real PC ports so it's best not to expect the world of them.

USB 1.1 (obsolete) hubs will work fine on USB 2.0 ports, but they cannot utilize USB 2.0 capabilities. They will default to slower speeds.

Hi-Speed and Full/Low-Speed USB devices can coexist nicely on USB 2.0 hubs. Connecting such a hub to a USB 2.0 port is recommended.

USB 2.0 hubs can be used on older USB 1.1 computers.

Although it is said that you can "cascade" up to 4 hubs, problems may start to arise after two hubs, it's best to minimize hub usage if possible.

Many USB devices don't work well on hubs. Cameras, scanners and especially USB drives are known to have problems with hub connectivity.

Remember that "active USB extensions" are really just one-port hubs.

USB 2.0 - Hi-Speed USB page 2

Will USB 2.0 replace USB 1.1?
Not entirely, because many products such as generic keyboards, mice, joysticks and audio speakers do not require the faster speed of the new USB 2.0 technologies. Only bandwidth-hungry devices, such as web cams and high-capacity storage systems, will need all the speed. However, next-generation systems will come with USB 2 ports rather than USB 1.1.

How do I distinguish between a USB 2.0 and a USB 1.1 devices? New logos designed by the USB Promoter Group allow consumers to easily identify the new USB 2.0 products. The new colorful logo for USB 2.0 is labeled USB Hi-Speed, and the new logo for USB 1.1 is labeled with USB Basic Speed. However, most people won't miss it as manufacturers often label USB 2.0 READY Or 40 times faster than USB 1.1, on the boxes.

Will USB 1.1 devices run any faster on a USB 2.0 bus?
No. However, the new USB 2.0 archiclecture allows more high-speed USB 1.1 devices, such as web cams, audio devices, to share the bandwidth. Developers need to follow USB 2.0 spec in order to design higher speed peripherals that can take advantage of the extra bandwidth. USB 1.1 devices still operate at 12Mbps at full-speed and 1.5Mbps at low-speed on a USB 2.0 bus. Even though USB 1.1 devices won't run any faster, they can work alongside of USB 2.0 devices on the same bus.

What are USB Hi-Speed and USB Basic Speed logos?
These logos are part of USB Promoter Group's branding program that ensures the quality of USB products. The USB 2.0 certified products would display a blue, white and red logo, bearing the words Certified and Hi-Speed. The classic USB 1.1 certified products would display a black and white logo with the words USB and Certified.

Under a license from USB-IF, products must pass the compliance tests before manufacturers can use one of the two trademarked logos. The Promoter Group will take legal actions on manufacturers that label either logo on their products, which have not passed the tests.

What happen if a USB 2.0 devices are plugged into a USB 1.1 systems?
The entire bus under the USB 1.1 root hub will slow to 12Mbps. The operating system will probably notify the user about the sub-optimal configuration and recommend for a better course of action.

If several USB 1.1 hubs are connected to a USB 2.0 bus, then each of the USB 1.1 hubs will get a full 12Mbps bandwidth.

What is the max? Length of a USB 2.0 cable?
5m. however, if you cascade 5 hubs with 5m USB cables, this will allow you to connect a device 30m away.

What do I need to use a USB 2.0 device?
The requirement is similar to that of USB 1.1, but all components will have to be USB 2.0 compliant. A successful USB 2.0 connection requires a USB 2.0 host controller card, a USB 2.0 driver and a USB 2.0 peripheral.

How much will it cost to upgrade to USB 2.0?
Around $80 to $150. Currently, Orange Micro., Adaptec and IO Gear are shipping USB 2.0 PCI cards, some of which even have FireWire ports. Interestingly, almost all USB 2.0 PCI cards include an internal port, which is probably for connecting internal USB 2.0 IDE enclosure or USB 2.0 front panel.

Will USB 2.0 arrive on mobile computers?
Yes, but not in integrated solution on laptops. You will need a USB 2.0 Card Bus card. Orange Micro. is shipping USB 2.0 compliant 4-port Card Bus card. Eventually, notebook vendors will adapt to USB 2.0 technology, and we will see USB 2.0 ports on laptops. This transition won't happen until 2002 at the earliest.

Which operating systems support USB 2.0?
Microsoft has released the official USB 2.0 driver for Windows XP and Windows 2000. The version is 5.1.2600. The software is available on-line at Windows Update website. (If you don't have a USB 2.0 card installed in your system, Windows Update won't list the USB 2.0 driver as an update.)

The software company is still considering USB 2.0 support for Windows ME, but it already has decided not to bring USB 2.0 to Windows 98 and Windows 98 SE. If you have Windows 98, you will have to rely on 3rd party USB 2.0 support from USB card manufacturer.

Do USB 1.1 cables work with USB 2.0 devices?
Ideally, yes. USB 2.0 architecture uses the same cables and connectors as USB 1.1 compliant products. Unfortunately, only 3 out of 11 cables on the market are certified as USB 1.1 compliant. You may run into the cables that cause problems connecting high-speed peripherals. To avoid negative user experience, most vendors include USB 2.0 compliant cables with their USB 2 PCI cards and peripherals.

For more information kindly consult with.
Vuhelps@gmail.com
Regards
Vuhelps

Tuesday, July 14, 2009

Use full tip in Vu Exam System get Maximum time in Examination computer Lab.

Use full tip in Vu Exam System get Maximum time in Examination computer Lab.
For vu exam system we have given a login name and a password. When we enter the login name and password the request sended to the server and it authenticate us. So the way to treat server we can get maximum time as compare to the original time as per rule of vu exam system. Its actually the flaw inside the server. That I realize by doing some work during the exam start. Well let see how it works.
When you enter your id and password inside the client as the browser is configure as the client then you press login and a window comes and changes that the exam is started and the clock started tick tick. So after login you see that are on question no 1. So you can see there are buttons down. For go to next question save etc. Also a bar which can take u to any question when u change the variable location of it by holding it with mouse. So when u r login and u r on the first question the first thing u have to do is to click on a button which will take u to the end of the exam question. Buy doing this the first command when everyone is login and attempting the exam the server get’s busy. You can view it status during your exam. So its on LAN(Local Area Network). That’s why it is doing so. Then your system will be hang for a while and also the time the clock will run slowly. So it will give you some extra minutes. Also you can complain to them that the system where u r attempting the exam is not working fine. It will stop the exam only for you and you have the chance to think about the last 10 marks question. So they will restart and your time will be increased by rule of vu. So also if you can unplug the wire of the lancard for few seconds it also can increase your time on the server. These are few tips which can really help you out during the exam to get the maximum time as compare to other by the rule of vu exam system.
For further information kindly do write the comments or feel free to email on vuhelps@gmail.com.

Regards
Vuhelps.

Saturday, July 11, 2009

How your mobile phone etiquette?

How your mobile phone etiquette?


How your mobile phone etiquette?

How your mobile phone etiquette?

1. You use your mobile phone in movie theatres?
a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

2 You use your mobile phone while standing in line?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

3 You’ve pretended to get cut off on your mobile phone if you don’t feel like talking to someone?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

4 If the person you are talking to can’t hear you, you just speak louder…. Even if you are in public?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

5 You often forget to turn off your ringer during meetings or in quiet places?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

6 Your ring tone is loud, funky, and hard for anyone to ignore?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

7 you text while driving?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

8 if you see someone crazy looking in public, you will snap a picture of them with your phone?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

9 You have no problem interrupting a face-to-face conversation to answer your mobile phone?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never

10 You have no problem arguing or having a personal conversation on your mobile phone in public?

a) Always
b) Often
c) Sometimes
d) Rarely
e) Never



See what you have scored?

Mostly A’s.
Ouch! Your mobile phone manners are really rough. Someone should take that phone away from you! LOLZ
Mostly B’s
Your mobile phone etiquette is not exactly stellar in fact, you have pretty darn annoying if you must see your phone in public, take it outside and speak quietly!
Mostly C’s
Your mobile phone manners are simply okay. Sometimes you can be very considerate. But when you are in the middle of an important conversation, all rules go out the window!
Mostly D’s
Your mobile phone manners are quite good. Not perfect, but almost. Ocasionally, you do annoy people with your phone. But when you realize it. You stop.
Mostly E’s
You are practically a mobile phone saint. You never annoy the people around you. Everone should have phone manners as good as yours. And you sure wish they did!
Comments please



Regards
Vuhelps
vuhelps@gmail.com

Friday, July 10, 2009

MTH302 9th july updated page1

Kindly do make vuhelps your default page and keep viewing it to get up to date information about current fresh exams. Also follow the blog. Send your papers to make them here uptodate at vuhelps@gmail.com or feel free to call at 03455242488
Q: # 1:
a) The time taken to complete jobs of a particular type is known to be
Normal distributed with mean 6.4 hours and standard deviation 1.2 hours.
What is the probability that a randomly selected job less then 7 hours
takes. (5)
b) A Normal distribution (N) has mean 140 and standard Deviation 8. Find
probability if N less then 156. Pr ( N < 156 ). (5)
Q: # 2:
What is the normal cumulative function for a z-value =0.38? Use suitable
EXCEL function for calculation. (5)
Q: # 3:
Find the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution when
arithmetic mean is 45, standard deviation is 1.25 and the probability
corresponding to the normal distribution is 0.65. (5)
For Practice (Ungraded Questions)
Q: # 1
A Normal distribution has mean 56 and Standard deviation 12. if an item is
picked at random from the distribution, what is the probability that its
value will be;
a) Less then 30;
b) Greater then 80.
Q: # 2
What is the normal cumulative function for a z-value =2.73? Use suitable
EXCEL function for calculation.
Q: 3
The weight of a metal components produce by a machine are distributed
normally with mean 14 lbs and standard Deviation 0.12lbs. What is the
probability that a component sampled randomly from production will have a
weight greater then 14.3 lbs.

Regards Vuhelps

ECO401- Economics 9th july page 3

Kindly do make vuhelps your default page and keep viewing it to get up to date information about current fresh exams. Also follow the blog. Send your papers to make them here uptodate at vuhelps@gmail.com or feel free to call at 03455242488
Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If disposable income increases from $5 trillion to $6 trillion and as a result, consumption expenditure increases from $7 trillion to $7.8 trillion, the Marginal Propensity to Consume is:

► 1.0.
► 0.8.
► 5/7 = 0.71.
► 6/7.8 = 0.77.

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The slope of the consumption function (or line) is the:

► Average propensity to save.
► Average propensity to consume.
► Marginal propensity to save.
► Marginal propensity to consume.

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Suppose that your income increases from $100,000 to $150,000 and your consumption increases from $80,000 to $120,000. Your Marginal Propensity to Save (MPS) is:

► 0.2.
► 0.4.
► 0.6.
► 0.8.

Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The unemployment rate is equal to:

► Number of employed / labour force x 100.
► Number of unemployed / labour force.
► (Number of unemployed / labour force) x 100.
► None of the given options.

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The traditional Phillips Curve shows the:

► Inverse relationship between the rate of inflation and unemployment rate.
► Inverse relationship between the nominal and real wage.
► Direct relationship between unemployment and demand-pull inflation.
► Tradeoff between the short run and long run.

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Deflation is:

► An increase in the overall level of economic activity.
► An increase in the overall price level.
► A decrease in the overall level of economic activity.
► A decrease in the overall price level.

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Is Grosss Domestic Product (GDP) an accurate measure of a country’s well being?
► Yes, it is the best measure of national well being.
► Yes, provided we use real GDP and not nominal GDP.
► Uncertain, depending on whether GDP is rising or falling.
► No, it is not.

Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP):

► Is nominal GDP adjusted for changes in the price level.
► Is also called nominal GDP.
► Measures GDP minus depreciation of capital.
► Will always change when prices change.

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If a war destroys a large portion of a country's capital stock but the saving rate is unchanged, the exogenous model predicts that output will grow and the new steady state will approach:

► A higher output level than before.
► The same output level as before.
► A lower output level than before.
► The Golden Rule output level.

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A currency appreciation:

► Reduces aggregate demand and increases aggregate supply.
► Reduces both aggregate demand and aggregate supply.
► Increases aggregate demand and reduces aggregate supply.
► Increases both aggregate demand and aggregate supply.

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
M1 component of money supply consists of:


► Paper currency and coins.
► Paper currency, coins and check writing deposits.
► Paper currency, coins, check writing deposits and savings deposits.
► Paper currency, coins, check writing deposits, savings deposits and certificates of deposits.

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Personal income:

► Is income received by individuals during a given year.
► Is the income individuals have available for spending during a given year.
► Equals national income minus indirect taxes.
► Is the sum of wages plus interest received by individuals during a given year.

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Real Gross National Product (GNP) is best defined as:

► The pound value of all final goods and services produced in the economy during a particular time period and measured in current prices.
► The pound value of all goods produced for final consumption by households in a particular year and measured in constant prices.
► The current pound value of all new and used goods produced and sold in the economy during a particular time period.
► The market value of all final goods and services produced by the economy during a given time period, with prices held constant relative to some base period.

Question No: 42 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following statements describes the difference between nominal and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP)?
► Real GDP includes only goods; nominal GDP includes goods and services.
► Real GDP is measured using constant base-year prices; nominal GDP is measured using current prices.
► Real GDP is equal to nominal GDP less the depreciation of the capital stock.
► Real GDP is equal to nominal GDP multiplied by the CPI.

Question No: 43 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If we compare Gross Domestic Product (GDP) with Gross National Product (GNP) then:

► GNP = GDP – Net income from abroad.
► GNP = GDP + Net income from abroad.
► GNP = NNP – Net income from abroad.
► GNP = NNP + Net income from abroad.

Question No: 44 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of:

► All transactions in an economy during one-year period.
► All goods and services exchanged in an economy during one-year period.
► All final goods and services exchanged in an economy during one-year period.

Regards Vuhelps

ECO401- Economics 9th july page 2

Kindly do make vuhelps your default page and keep viewing it to get up to date information about current fresh exams. Also follow the blog. Send your papers to make them here uptodate at vuhelps@gmail.com or feel free to call at 03455242488
Question No: 14 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In monopoly, which of the following is NOT true?

► Products are differentiated.
► There is freedom of entry and exit into the industry in the long run.
► The firm is a price maker.
► There is one main seller.

Question No: 15 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Welfare economics is the branch of economics which deals with:

► Positive issues.
► Normative issues.
► Micro issues.
► Macro issues.

Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Under the kinked demand curve model, an increase in marginal cost will lead to:

► An increase in output level and a decrease in price.
► A decrease in output level and an increase in price.
► A decrease in output level and no change in price.
► Neither a change in output level nor a change in price.

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following market situation is much like a pure monopoly except that its member firms tend to cheat on agreed upon price and output strategies?

► Duopoly.
► Cartel.
► Market sharing monopoly.
► Natural monopoly.

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
In the complete classical model, a rightward shift of the labor supply curve will:

► Decrease the price level and increase the nominal wage.
► Decrease the nominal wage and increase the price level.
► Decrease both the price level and the nominal wage.
► Increase both the price level and the nominal wage.

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following events could cause the aggregate demand curve to shift to the right?

► An increase in the rate of inflation.
► A decrease in government expenditures.
► A decrease in investment spending.
► A decrease in income tax rates.

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The Great Depression of 1930s opened the door to the __________ revolution in macroeconomic theory.

► Keynesian.
► New classical.
► Old classical.
► New Keynesian.

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Keynesian economics was the predominant economic theory:

► Prior to the late 1700s.
► From the late 1700s to the early 1900s.
► From 1930s to 1970s.
► Since 1970s.

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Classical economics was replaced as the dominant theory of macroeconomic analysis by:

► Monetarism.
► Rational expectations.
► Keynesian economics.
► Neoclassical economics.

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
According to the model of aggregate supply and aggregate demand, in the long run, an increase in the money supply should cause:

► Both prices and output to rise.
► Prices to fall and output to remain unchanged.
► Both prices and output to fall.
► Prices to rise and output to remain unchanged.

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Intermediate goods are meant for:

► Direct use by the consumers.
► Further processing.
► The term do not exist.
► None of the given options.

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Final goods are meant for:

► Direct use by the consumers.
► Further processing.
► The term do not exist.
► None of the given options.

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is a flow variable?
► The value of the house in which you live.
► The balance in your savings account.
► Your monthly consumption on food items.
► The number of carrots in your refrigerator at the beginning of the month.

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is NOT a stock variable?

► Government debt.
► Capital.
► The amount of money held by the public.
► Inventory investment.

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
All other things remain the same, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will rise if:

► Imports rises.
► Exports falls.
► Durable goods consumption rises.
► Military spending falls.

Regards Vuhelps

ECO401- Economics 9th july page 1

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Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Aslam decides to stay at home and study for his exam rather than going out with his friends to a movie. His dilemma is an example of:


► The economic perspective.
► Marginal analysis.
► Allocative efficiency.
► Opportunity cost.

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A good for which income and quantity demanded are inversely related is known as:

► Inferior good.
► Complementary good.
► Normal good.
► None of the given options.

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
An increase in supply is shown by:
► Shifting the supply curve to the left.
► Shifting the supply curve to the right.
► Upward movement along the supply curve.
► Downward movement along the supply curve.

Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Price floor results in:
► All of the given options.
► Excess supply.
► Equilibrium.
► Excess demand.

Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded to:


► Quantity demanded.
► Quantity supplied.
► Price.
► Output.

Question No: 6 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Assume that the total utilities for the fifth and sixth units of a good consumed are 83 and 97, respectively. The marginal utility for the sixth unit is:

► -14.
► 14.
► 83.
► 97.

Question No: 7 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Indifference curves that are convex to the origin reflect:

► An increasing marginal rate of substitution.
► A decreasing marginal rate of substitution.
► A constant marginal rate of substitution.
► A marginal rate of substitution that first decreases, then increases.

Question No: 8 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
To find the profit maximizing level of output, a firm finds the output level where:
► Price equals marginal cost.
► Marginal revenue and average total cost.
► Price equals marginal revenue.
► None of the given options.

Question No: 9 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
As compared to existing firms, a new firm entering in monopolist market has:
► High costs.
► Low costs.
► Equal costs.
► None of the given options.

Question No: 10 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A firm is charging a different price for each unit purchased by a consumer. This is called:
► First-degree price discrimination.
► Second-degree price discrimination.
► Third-degree price discrimination.
► None of the given options.

Question No: 11 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
McDonald's restaurant located near the high school offered a Tuesday special for high school students. If high school students showed their student ID cards, they would be given 50 cents off any special meal. This practice is an example of:

► Collusion.
► Price discrimination.
► Two-part tariff.
► Bundling.

Question No: 12 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The price elasticity of demand for any good must be less than or equal to zero unless:

► The good is a necessity.
► The good is a luxury.
► The good is a Giffen good.
► None of the given options.

Regards Vuhelps

MGT201 Financial Management 9th july page 3

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Question No: 32 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following expressed the proposition that the value of the firm is independent of its capital structure?
► The Capital Asset Pricing Model
► M&M Proposition I
► M&M Proposition II
► The Law of One Price

Question No: 33 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following could NOT be defined as the capital structure of the Company?
► The firm's mix of Assets and liabilities
► The firm's debt-equity ratio
► All of the given option
► The firm's common stocks only

Question No: 34 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following would express the negative net worth of a firm?
► Experiencing a business failure
► A legal bankruptcy
► Experiencing technical insolvency
► Experiencing accounting insolvency

Question No: 35 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Suppose that the Euro is selling at a forward discount in the forward-exchange market. This implies that most likely __________.
► The Euro has low exchange-rate risk
► The Euro is gaining strength in relation to the dollar
► Interest rates are higher in Euroland than in the United States
► Interest rates are declining in Europe


Question No: 36 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following term is used when the firm can independently control considerable assets with a very limited amount of equity?
► Joint venture
► Leveraged buyout (LBO)
► Spin-off
► Consolidation

Question No: 37 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is NOT a reason that DeStore.com would prefer to pay a stock dividend rather than a regular cash dividend?
► It decreases the supply of shares and enhances shareholder wealth
► It may conserve cash for other firm needs
► It will reduce the stock price
► The investors anticipates that it cannot convey credibly otherwise

Question No: 38 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
After the payment of a 25% stock dividend, an investor has 500 shares of stock and Rs. 400 total value. What did the investor have prior to the stock dividend?
► 375 shares of stock and Rs. 375 total value
► 400 shares of stock and Rs. 400 total value
► 400 shares of stock and Rs. 500 total value
► 625 shares of stock and Rs. 400 total value

Question No: 39 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
What is the proportion of assets in debt financing for a firm that expects a 24% return on equity, a 16% return on assets, and a 12% return on debt? Ignore taxes.
► 54.0%
► 60.0%
► 66.7%
► 75.0%

Question No: 40 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
When financial disaster is looming, why management may borrow to invest in projects having a negative expected NPV?
► The firm's beta is now negative
► Taxes are no longer a concern
► The interest tax shield will cover the loan costs
► The lender bears all the risk

Question No: 41 ( Marks: 5 )
Zee Zee Tops Inc., manufacturer’s plaid vinyl and chenille cartops for convertibles. These roofs sell for Rs. 200 each and have an associated variable cost per unit of Rs. 120. Management fully expects next year’s sales and NOI to drop sharply, by 20% and 50%, respectively, due to lack of demand (i.e., “consumer resistance”). If Zee Zee‘s current level of production and sales is 112 cartops, what is the level of fixed costs?

Question No: 42 ( Marks: 5 )
How working capital affects performance of a business?

Question No: 43 ( Marks: 10 )
Hoskins Hiking Boot Company is trying to devise an appropriate working capital policy. Their most recent balance sheet is as follows:


ASSETS LIABILITIES AND OWNER'S EQUITY
Cash Rs.30 Accounts payable Rs.35
Accounts receivable 50 Notes payable 10
Inventories 30 Accruals 5
Current Assets 110 Current liabilities 50
Net fixed assets 150 Mortgage loan (at 13%) 80
Common equity 130
Total liabilities &
Owner's equity
Total assets Rs.260 Rs.260

You know that net profits in 2004 were Rs.28, 000.

a. What is Hoskin's current level of gross and net working capital? (Marks 2)
b. What percentage of total assets is invested in gross working capital? (Marks 1)
c. Calculate Hoskins' return on investment. (Marks 2)
d. Suppose the firm reduces cash, accounts receivable, and inventory by 10% and uses the proceeds to pay off some of its accounts payable. Now, assuming all other items remain the same, answer a, b, and c above using these new figures. (Marks 5)

ANS
a. What is Hoskin's current level of gross and net working capital? (Marks 2)


b. What percentage of total assets is invested in gross working capital? (Marks 1)

c. Calculate Hoskins' return on investment. (Marks 2)
= [Net Income / Total Assets] X 100

d. Suppose the firm reduces cash, accounts receivable, and inventory by 10% and uses the proceeds to pay off some of its accounts payable. Now, assuming all other items remain the same, answer a, b, and c above using these new figures. (Marks 5)

b. What percentage of total assets is invested in gross working capital?



Question No: 44 ( Marks: 10 )
Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) of Firm is Rs.1000 and Corporate Tax Rate, Tc is 30%

a. If the Firm is 100% Equity (or Un-Levered) and rE = 30% then what is the
WACCU of Un-levered Firm?
b. If the Firm takes Rs.1000 Debt at 10% Interest or Mark-up then what is the
WACCL of Levered Firm? (There is no change in return in equity)


c. If the Firm is 100% Equity (or Un-Levered) and rE = 30% then what is the
WACCU of Un-levered Firm?



d. If the Firm takes Rs.1000 Debt at 10% Interest or Mark-up then what is the
WACCL of Levered Firm? (There is no change in return in equity)







Question No: 45 ( Marks: 10 )

If the capital-asset pricing model approach is appropriate, compute the required rate of return for each of the following stocks: Assume a risk-free rate of .09 and an expected return for the market portfolio of .12.
Stock A B C D E
Beta 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.7 0.2





Regards Vuhelps

MGT201 Financial Management 9th july page 2

Kindly do make vuhelps your default page and keep viewing it to get up to date information about current fresh exams. Also follow the blog. Send your papers to make them here uptodate at vuhelps@gmail.com or feel free to call at 03455242488
Question No: 16 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
How the beta of a stock can be calculated?

► By monitoring price of the stock
► By monitoring rate of return of the stock
► By comparing the changes in the stock market price to the changes in the stock market index
► All of the given options

Question No: 17 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If stock is a part of totally diversified portfolio then its company risk must be equal to:

► 0
► 0.5
► 1
► -1

Question No: 18 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
How can you limit company-specific risks?
► Invest in that company's bonds
► Invest in a variety of stocks
► Invest in securities that do well in a recession
► Invest in securities that do well in a boom

Question No: 19 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Find the Risk-Free Rate given that the Expected Return on Stock is 12.44%, the Expected Return on the Market Portfolio is 13.4%, and the Beta for Stock is 0.9.
► 3.8%
► 4.9%
► 5.34%
► 6.38%

Question No: 20 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following can be used to calculate the risk of the larger portfolio?
► Standard deviation
► EPS approach
► Matrix approach
► Gordon’s Approach

Question No: 21 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Market risk is measured in terms of the ___________ of the market portfolio or index.
► Variance
► Covariance
► Standard deviation
► Correlation coefficient

Question No: 22 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
If 2 stocks move in the same direction together then what will be the correlation coefficient?


► 0
► 1.0
► -1.0
► 1.5

Question No: 23 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Which of the following is NOT the cost of equity?
► The minimum rate that a firm should earn on the equity-financed part of an investment
► Generally lower than the before-tax cost of debt
► It is the most difficult cost component to estimate
► None of the given options

Question No: 24 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Assume management is looking at a set of possible projects with regards to their expected NPV, standard deviation, and management's risk attitude. The firm should attempt to take the set of projects __________.
► That falls on the lowest indifference curve
► That falls on the highest indifference curve
► That has the lowest standard deviation
► That has the highest standard deviation

Question No: 25 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The overall (weighted average) cost of capital is composed of weighted averages of which of the following?
► The cost of common equity and the cost of debt
► The cost of common equity and the cost of preferred stock
► The cost of preferred stock and the cost of debt
► The cost of common equity, the cost of preferred stock, and the cost of debt

Question No: 26 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
How economic value added (EVA) is calculated?
► It is the difference between the market value of the firm and the book value of equity
► It is the firm's net operating profit after tax (NOPAT) less a dollar cost of capital charge
► It is the net income of the firm less a dollar cost that equals the WAAC only
► None of the given options

Question No: 27 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
Upon which of the following a firm's degree of operating leverage (DOL) depends primarily?
► Sales variability
► Level of fixed operating costs
► Closeness to its operating break-even point
► Debt-to-equity ratio

Question No: 28 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
A firm has a DFL of 3.5 at X dollars. What does this tell us about the firm?
► If sales rise by 3.5% at the firm, then EBIT will rise by 1%
► If EBIT rises by 3.5% at the firm, then EPS will rise by 1%
► If EBIT rises by 1% at the firm, then EPS will rise by 3.5%
► If sales rise by 1% at the firm, then EBIT will rise by 3.5%

Question No: 29 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
For an all-equity firm, what is the effect of EBIT on the EPS?
► As earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) increases, the earnings per share (EPS) increases by the same percent
► As EBIT increases, the EPS increases by a larger percent
► As EBIT increases, the EPS decreases
► None of the given options

Question No: 30 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The beta of an all-equity firm is 1.2. If the firm changes its capital structure to 50% debt and 50% equity using 8% debt financing, what will be the beta of the levered firm? The beta of debt is 0.2. (Assume no taxes.)
► 1.2
► 2.4
► 2.2
► 1.8

Question No: 31 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
The Serfraz Company is financed by Rs. 2 million (market value) in debt and Rs. 3 million (market value) in equity. The cost of debt is 10% and the cost of equity is 15%. Calculate the weighted average cost of capital. (Assume no taxes.)
► 10%
► 15%
► 13%
► 8%

Regards Vuhelps

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