Tuesday, June 30, 2009

Usful tips to attempting final exam

Attempting Paper
These are some useful tips to attempt the exam.

First after the login if you are in the vu exam center then try to login first. It will helpful you to get the first paper and it will be the easiest paper as it generates first easy and the rest of the all are randomly.
Read the MCQ’s carefully the options of them are some times involved in the subjective paper and u can quote it as example and get maximum marks.
Don’t help your friends who are sitting with you. It might be waste of time and you will lose your consatration in the exam. Its time to consatrate on your exam.
When preparing for exam kindly do read the tips after the lecture these tips will help you to find the most important concept which will come in the MCQ’s and also in the subjective.
Always use the word process for the typing for the subjective question’s answer. It will correct your words automatically.
If you are attempting the CS101 then use front page inside the program. Suppose you get the question which you have to write the code you may write there and then preview or write it in notepad and then save as HTML and then execute in the explorer and see the right answer and get solved the coding errors.
In some of the reference books u will find the MCQ’s in the end of the chapter kindly solved them.
Don’t consult with the offline papers which are downloaded from virtulians.com or vulhr.com etc these are waste of time.
For further information kindly do consult with vuhelps@gmail.com or feel free to call 03455242488

Sunday, June 28, 2009

Minimum Percentage to Pass Vu Exam

Rule for passing an Exam by minimum 20%

There is requirement of passing a subject that one student should be consistent in his studies through out. Therefore you are required to get 20% marks in rest of the items like assignments, midterm, discussions etc and at least 20% in final exam. This will make you eligible to pass a subject and then if you secure marks more than 40% overall while fulfilling the 20% criteria first then you would be considered as pass.

For passing a course you are required to get 20% marks overall in all items like assignments, discussions, midterm etc and at least 20% in final exam.

Rest marks= sum of all items like assignments, discussions, midterm etc

Rest Percent= sum of all items percentage like assignments, discussions, midterm etc.

Case 1:
More than 20% in every Rest marks and Final marks but less then 40% in the Net score.

Case 2:
Less than 20% in Rest marks

Case 3:
Less than 20% in Final marks

Case 4:
More then 20% score in every discipline and fulfilling the requirement of getting the net final score more then 40%

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For further information email to vuhelps@gmail.com or call 03455242488.

Saturday, June 27, 2009

Old vu papers from websites

Asalam o Alikum!
Dear fellows,
Hope you all are fine. Today I want to share a very important information with all of you. As we are enrolled in first semester. We all are consulting with the old papers. But reality that we faced in our midterm is not the same as we consult with the sites which allow us to download the old papers. In real time systems from where we do the online papers. Actually they are not online( Offline). As I want to tell you that they are not online exams. They are offline. What happens before 2 days of examination date they send the papers to the center’s. Then when we go suppose on 1st of july to attempt the exam they will put it to the local server. The password of the exam comes 15 minutes before the exam start vu email them. Then they take all the exams and at 7pm assemble them in a email and send them. But they are not able to open them. Because of encryption. I just interviewed to a administrator who follows the instructions of vu.
So the paper we download from the web they are totally changed. The timing the questions, instructions and the short questions and MCQ’s all are changed.
So I want to tell you that share your paper. Vu paper that suppose I got exam of CS101 and there are 12 days. So each time all the centers atleast 1 student is attempting the CS101 exam. So they just got 10 papers which are different to each other and come daily randomly. So if I have a group and I ask first person what you have faced he tell his/her friend. Then the other will be easiser a bit and he tell him/her the other one like MGT301 etc. So I am making a group here kindly my request is to join it and share the papers. So we will at least get real help from them. Don’t waste your time by downloading the exam from the site and get nothing except of time wastage.
So kindly join this group vuhelps@googlegroups.com
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Wednesday, June 24, 2009

Why we prefer Normal Distribution over the other distributions in Statistics?

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We prefer mostly normal distribution, because most of the data around us follows normal distribution. Example height, weight. Etc will follow normal you can check it by plotting the graph can see the bell curve on the histogram u plotted.
And most importantly by CLT (central limit theorem) and law of large numbers, we can say that as n is large the data follows normal distribution.
The normal distribution is so important due to the Central Limit Theorem. The Central Limit Theorem basically states that as the sample size increases ANY probability distribution can be approximated by the normal distribution and as that sample size increases in size the approximation gets better.

Because it focuses on the mean, or average when stating findings they are always based on averages. For example if you have a body fat test done, they will tell you what your fat content is and then compare it to the average person, based on the normal distribution.

The normal distribution is so important due to the Central Limit Theorem. The Central Limit Theorem basically states that as the sample size increases ANY probability distribution can be approximated by the normal distribution and as that sample size increases in size the approximation gets better. The statement that this works for ANY probability distribution is very powerful, as you can be working with an UNKNOWN probability distribution that you know nothing about, and still you can calculate some decent approximations to it as long as take a large enough sample size.

Because of the Central Limit Theorem: if we average a lot of random variables, which are independent and identically distributed, their average is close to being normally distributed. So, the Normal Distribution is "in touch with nature.":)

The Central Limit theorem states the distribution of an average tends to be Normal, even when the distribution from which the average is computed is isn't.

For example you roll the dice 10 times then take the average, then repeat many times, the distribution of the averages will be approximately Normal.

In simple terms the Normal distribution is useful for study of real world distributions because in the real world a single distribution (like height of men) is a result of other random factors.
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Tuesday, June 23, 2009

GDB of CS101

"Java Script is better than other scripting languages for web design"

Javascript is a programming language that runs on a web browser. It was developed by the same folks who gave us Netscape and was first implemented in version 2 of the browser. Jscript is Microsofts' implementation of Javascript for Internet Explorer. By the by, Javascript is not a subset of Java, infact, the two languages share little in common (yes, they share a few basic concepts but the syntax is different and so is the application). Naming their language "JavaScript", was just a clever marketing ploy by Netscape Communications. It was initially called Livescript but when Sun Microsystems released Java and it became very popular, Netscape renamed their scripting language to JavaScript.

Javascript runs on the browser (client) and does not require any server software. Thus, it is a client-side scripting language. Since all execution takes place on the browser, Javascript is responsible for most of the interactivity on a web page. Image change or text color change on mouseover, creating mouse trails are all possible through Javascript. The language has also been widely used for basic form validation. This seems logical, as it is better to validate a form on the client side than to make several trips to the server. Javascript is commonly embedded inside the HTML page and is thus visible to the visitor.

Javascript can also be written to run on a server and this is based on the ASP model promoted by Microsoft. Java Script is mostly syntactically compatible, but differs from Java in that it is interpreted, rather than compiled, only supports built certain built-in objects and user-defined functions, rather than full support for user-defined classes with inheritence and methods, is integrated with HTML, rather than invoked from HTML files, weakly typed, and dynamically bound. JavaScript is meant to extend HTML to be more of a full programming language, but retaining HTML's ease of use. The principal criticism of Java programming is that it much more complex than HTML programming, more like C++ programming, and therefore is not as accessible to users as HTML. This is an issue that JavaScript attempts to address.

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For full source file email on vuhelps@gmail.com
Theory of Automata (CS402)
Assignment # 6
Total marks = 20
Deadline Date = 22-06-2009

Please carefully read the following instructions before attempting the assignment.

Rules for Marking
It should be clear that your assignment would not get any credit if:

 The assignment is submitted after due date.
 The submitted assignment does not open or file corrupt.
 The assignment is copied. Note that strict action would be taken if the submitted assignment is copied from any other student. Both students will be punished severely.

1) You should concern recommended books to clarify your concepts as handouts are not sufficient.
2) You are supposed to submit your assignment in MS Word format and any other formats like scan images, PDF, Zip, rar, docx format etc will not be accepted
3) You are advised to upload your assignment at least two days before Due date.

Important Note: Assignment comprises of 3 questions. Note that no assignment will be accepted after due date via email in any case (whether it is the case of load shedding or emergency electric failure or internet malfunctioning etc.). Hence, refrain from uploading assignment in the last hour of the deadline, and try to upload assignments at least 02 (two) days before the assignment to avoid inconvenience later on.

Q1) consider the CFG given below: [marks 5]

S  aSa | bSb | a | b | aa | bb

Convert the above CFG in Chomsky Normal Form (CNF).

To convert the above CFG to be in CNF, introduce the new productions as
A a, B b, then the new CFG will be
A a
B b
Introduce nonterminals R1 and R2 so that
S AR1|BR2|AA|BB|a|b
R1 SA
R2 SB
A a
B b
which is in CNF.
It may be observed that the above CFG which is in CNF generates the NONNULLPALINDROME, which does
not contain the null string.

Q2) consider the Regular Expression given below: [Marks 10]

RE = (a+b)*a

Draw the FA of the above RE according to New Format, given in Lecture 37.

FA accepts the language of strings, expressed by (a+b)*a.

Q3) Briefly explain “PUSHDOWN STACK” in your own words. [Marks 5]
A PUSHDOWN STACK is a place where input letters can be strode until we want to refer to them again. It holds the letters it has been fed in a long column/ The operation PUSH adds a new letter to the top of the column. The new letter is placed on top of the STACK, wand all the other letters are pushed back accordingly before the machine begins to process an input string the STACK is presumed to be empty which means that every storage location init initially contains a blank. If the STACK is then fed the letters a, b, c, d by the sequence of instructions
Then the top letter in the STACK is D the second is c the third is b and the fourth is a, if we now execute the instruction

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

Technique for Attempting quiz

Subject: Atempting Quiz
Dear fellows,
Asalam o Alikum! I want to point out a very important technical point when we attempt quiz. I observed that in Vu most of the students don’t do the quiz by their self. They ask to their friends to attempt the quiz for them. So let me tell you this in brief. What happen when we use to do this. What is the working of vu quiz generator. How would you get the easy quiz even u didn’t prepar well. What are the techniques from following which you may get maximum marks.
Let me tell you actually what happen. As now we have the idea of the quiz and midterm also. So when we ask our friends or genius people want to attempt the quiz of their friends and then after wards they solve their quiz’s. So what actually happen when they start the first quiz it come very easy and after wards it is getting harder harder and more harder. So vu quiz generator shiffel the quiz and repeate the mcq’s questions in randomly. So the most technical point is this that when they login with their id in the end and think’s that now they are Guru and will get maximum marks the quiz come very hard and tricky and they say oh My God what I have done. My friend will get now maximum marks coz just two questions are not correct and except of all are correct and I will get 6 or 3 marks. It happened most of the time.
Why it happen? You got no idea. Let me tell you well as you know that from the same computer when we logon to vulms they get our ip and the quiz generator also get our ip. So it intelegently recognize the person’s are on the same ip or you may say in campus scenario that they are on share link. So it keep generating the harder quiz after the first one randomly. So I request all Guru’s for the solution that I have found.
What is the solution got any idea? Let me tell you in a very gentle way. That the idea is behind this when you want to attempt quiz you make sure from that link no one has attempt the quiz if someone attempt the quiz I recommend you to attempt your quiz from your home pc. From your dial up or from DSL. But first attempt your own and then attempt someone’s else. Because you don’t want to lose your marks without any reason. So here now you got the knowledge that why it happened.
What is the best way to attempt quiz without preparation? Well as you know when the quiz is going to announce they told you that from suppose lecture no 32 to 35 your quiz will be held on let say 12-06-09. So you first download your lectures from vu side in the form of PDF and use the latest version. Then open all the lectures and then try to search a word in the pdf. Let says in Data communication quiz you got a word invert bit. So it’s the main key that the mcq is asked about. So you simple type this in search in acrobade and then search it if you don’t get in the lecture 32 if you have separate files for all lectures if you have one then you will get it withn the file and then keep searching when it shows the result and click on it in 90 Sec you have enough time to do so. Then tally it with your quiz. You will get most of the time I say 80% the right answer doesn’t matter which subject you are attempting.
What if we attempt in it in Group manner? Well this is a bit difficult proceger but following this I asure you you will get 90% of marks confirm doesn’t matter it come hard harder even tricky. Let me do this for guru’s they think that they are not going to help student’s who are week in studies. Well the concept is in LAN(Local Area Network) in Xp you got Netmeeting in the system. You simply click on start button and then click on run and type conf and press ok or Enter. Then a form will appear you simply fill it and then netmeeting will start it is like messenger but it is very powerful. You can share your desktop. Well on system where you are going to attempt the quiz configure netmeeting and except pc’s also configure netmeeting then suppose you are 5 students one Guru is attempting quiz and others are sitting on the other pc’s so guru pc should share the desktop and connect all the other students to the guru pc well you have to call the guru pc by dialing his ip. To get guru ip on guru pc click on start and then run and then type cmd it shows the dos and there type ipconfig you will get the local ip says like it can be change I am telling my local ip. So then they will connect then share the desktop. Then when you attempt the quiz they will see the main window and then they open the acrobade reader and searching in it see now searching is 4 time faster and efficient in 90 seconds which means 90 sec Multiply by 4 equal to 360sec. So it’s the trick. You should be efficient in this.
From where we can get the MCQ ideas? Well most of the mcq’s come from the book and they are given in the end of the reference book relevant chapter to the quiz. So you should solve them I mean the group. Then it will help you to make the quiz 100%.
Kindly give your comments after getting the membership of the vuhelps. Because it’s the platform on which we can share and exchange our views and the question which are arrases in our mind’s.
Wish you best of your final term exams.

Monday, June 8, 2009

MGT 501 Spring Semester 2009 Assignment # 01

Here check it out and kindly do follow the blog and make it your default web page and don't hesitate to send your assignments and get there solution here.
email to vuhelps@gmail.com for more information

Case study:
Nearly 10yrs ago Ali & Usman opened a small chocolate shop named as ‘Royal
Chocolates’. Royal Chocolates manufactured high quality chocolates for all special
occasions. All the chocolates were manufactured & sold on the premises of the two
owners (Ali, Usman). Mr. Ali was responsible for the production & finances while Mr.
Usman took care of sales & advertising. At first, both were the only full-time employees
& part-time help was used during peek business seasons. However, the demand for their
chocolates grew & the business soon became successful beyond their optimistic
As the firm grew, Ali & Usman expanded their retail & manufacturing facilities & hired
15 full-time employees. All employees, except the proprietors, were paid on an hourly
basis slightly above the federal minimum wage rate. Despite the low wages, the firm was
able to attract dedicated employees who enjoyed working in ‘Royal Chocolates’ small &
cohesive environment. Part-time employees were still used to help the full-time
employees when needed. However, some of the part-time employees were lacking in
aggressiveness & initiative that a small, but growing business required. As Ali put it,
some of the workers in the production area seemed to be lacking in performance. Often
shelf inventories of chocolates that were especially popular with the customers would be
depleted. In addition, some of his sales persons’ help would fail to report for work or
would call in sick. Turnover among part-time help was high & both Ali & Usman felt
that the firm’s pay policy might be contributing to their personnel problems.
Ali decided to institute a ‘piece-rate’ plan whereby production workers would be paid a
bonus for packing more than 75boxes of chocolates per hour. In order to ensure quality,
production workers were penalized for every box containing smashed or imperfect
chocolates that the quality control workers rejected. He hoped that this incentive system
would help maintain inventory levels without sacrificing quality. Unfortunately, the plan
was a failure because nearly all the production workers complained that the incentive
system was too demanding & making extra money was difficult. Royal Chocolates’
problems were compounded when its sales personnel complained that they were forced to
accept a straight hourly wage with no chance for any incentive bonus. The production
workers, in turn, claimed that they were not compensated fairly relative to the sales
workers because sales personnel worked in pleasant surroundings whereas; production
workers had to endure heat, noise, & greater safety hazards. A number of workers also
claimed that wages in other companies in the community were much higher than those at
Royal Chocolates.
Royal Chocolates recently received a visit from a state labor department’s representative
who threatened the company owners for violating the wage & hourly wage law. It
appears that Royal Chocolates had failed to pay overtime to employees who worked over
40 hours during the week during peek seasons. Between the employee about pay, the
legal problems, & the paper work that Ali is required to fill out for the state & federal
government, he is beginning to wonder whether being a small business owner is worth
the headaches. His headache became even worse when he began trying to figure out how
the Reform Tax Act was going to affect his business & its tax situation.
Here is the solution kindly do email on vuhelps@gmail.com for further information. Kindly follow the blog because it is doing effort for all of you.


Tuesday, June 2, 2009

CS 101 Assignment # 5


Kindly for the solution email on vuhelps@gmail.com and also follow the blog.
Because this assignment can't be shown here and also send me a fresh copy of this assignment on vuhelps.
CS 101 Introduction to Computing
Assignment # 05
Total Marks 20
Your assignment must be uploaded / submitted before or on 08-06-2009.
Upload Instructions
Please view the assignment submission process document provided to you
by the Virtual University to upload the assignment.
Rules for Marking
Please note that your assignment will not be graded if:
• It is submitted after due date
• The file you uploaded does not open
• The file you uploaded is copied from some one else or from internet
• It is in some format other than .doc
• Each object should not have your own id
• Images are added instead of editable objects
The assignment has been designed to enable you to:
• Insert objects in Microsoft Word document
• Make a Microsoft Excel Worksheet
• Make a power point slide
• Use Paint
• Create Excel chart

Question 20 marks

In a Microsoft Word document insert the following objects:
1. Power Point Slide
2. Microsoft Excel Worksheet
3. Bitmap Image
4. Microsoft excel chart
Use attractive colors and put your id in above objects.

Your solution may look like this:

Power Point Slide Object

Microsoft Excel Worksheet Object

Bitmap Image Object

For this assignment first go and open powerpoint there you will in first slide write your name and your roll number and save it in documents as name abc.ppt then you open word processor and in blank document you type ur assignment # and name and roll number then click on insert and then on object in object See the image and follow this.

Then you just follow the image and browse then select the abc and just press ok it will come to your word processor.
After this open excel and write 10 to 100 in cells and then put ur name and id and then again save it. again now in word processor open and insert then browse and put the file and then open again excel insert chart by selecting a value and then save and insert and also the file in mspaint then save it as bitmap. IF you didn't save it as bitmap then the teacher will not give you marks they can chechk.
Here's a trick that i want to share if you don't save as bitmap the file size will be in 100kb to 200kb but if you save it as bitmap and insert as object your file size might be from 700kb to 1mb so size is the trick in this assignment and it works so kindly do this. One announcement for all that kindly do follow the blog and also kindly if you don't make this assignment your self email to vuhelps@gmail.com and put your id and password i assure you will get a assignment and just upload it to vulms it will change from other's.
Microsoft excel chart Object inser it by following this all.
its the same


Monday, June 1, 2009

Date Sheet tchnique

Kindly do follow my blog and become the member and get information and share with your friends.
To get maximum marks by following this article.
Hope you all are fine. Dear fellows as you know that the date sheet date has been announced.
“Published On: Friday, May 29, 2009
“MAKE YOUR OWN DATESHEET” for the Spring 2009 Final Term Exams will be available from 5th to 12th June, 2009. Those who fail to make their datesheet within this period may request in the next six days on payment of late fee.”
Here I am telling you all that I observed how to make a datesheet and get maximum marks.

When you going to make date sheet. First you think about your self and then for other’s. I suggest you to don’t make the combine date sheet. Its meaning that if you are in MBA group and your class mates are making date sheet and you select the same time as they selected then what will happen you don’t have any idea. When you will go to vu exam center and you got the login name and password after entering the paper will download to your desktop and it will be generated randomly. Suppose 10 people are giving that exam all of them will get different paper to each other. So some get easy some will get average and some of you will get hard. So the easy person will think that he/she get maximum marks and don’t get anything false. The average one will also think and harder will also if someone ask him/her he /she will get irritate so the main point that no one going to help with heart to anyone.
I got the solution for this that don’t blame to your friends that you didn’t help me there. You know that when you making your date sheet suppose you select your cs101 paper on 8th of july. The center you select there is not a single person who is giving this paper. You have any idea that which paper will you given by the vu system to solve? Let me tell you. You will get the easiest paper. Because they set in their system that if one person is giving the paper he/she get easy paper and system generate that paper. It is 100% testified. So you have 80% chance to get maximum marks. Because it is so easy. I got cs201 paper and I solved it in 8 minutes. Because it was very easy and in that paper I have to cover 22 lectures and I did only 18th and paper come in to first 14th lectures. Not only in this also in other subjects too. Because I am doing MCS and in jhelum only 3 persons are doing MCS I don’t know other person’s So I was alone in every paper. I get every paper very easy. So it is testified I share this with MBA student he says the same. Because he was doing job and he did them at evening time and also in Sunday. So kindly do follow this procedure and don’t blame your friends that they didn’t help you out to solve this issue. Believe me by working this you will get maximum marks.
Pray for me and also kindly do follow my blog.


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Maximum Marks: 12
Due Date: June 02, 2009

DON’T MISS THESE: Important instructions before attempting the solution of this assignment:

•To solve this assignment, you should have good command over 23 -30 lectures.
• Try to get the concepts, consolidate your concepts and ideas from these questions which you learn in the 23 to 30 lectures.

• Upload assignments properly through LMS, No Assignment will be accepted
through email.
• Write your ID on the top of your solution file.
• Don’t use colorful back grounds in your solution files.
• Use Math Type or Equation Editor etc for mathematical symbols.
• In order to get full marks do all necessary steps.
• You should remember that if we found the solution files of some students are same then we will reward zero marks to all those students.
• Try to make solution by yourself and protect your work from other students, otherwise you and the student who send same solution file as you will be given zero marks.
• Also remember that you are supposed to submit your assignment in MS-Word ,any other like scan images etc will not be accepted and we will give zero marks correspond to these assignments.

Question 1; Mark: 7
Use mathematical induction to prove that for all integers n≥1,
is divisible by 3.


is divisible by 3.

P(1) is true
For n = 1, L.H.S
of P(5^1-2^1)
= 5-2
= 3
Hence the equation is true for 5^n-2^n is divisible by 3
Base Case: Let n = 0. Then
15^n - 1 = 15^0 - 1 = 1 - 1 = 0, and 0 is obviously divisible by 7.
Let n = 1. Then
15^1 - 1 = 15 - 1 = 14, and 14 is obviously divisible by 7.

Therefore, the formula holds true for n = 0 and n = 1.

Induction Hypothesis: Assume the formula holds true for up to n = k for some value k. i.e. assume that

15^k - 1 is divisible by 7.

(We want to prove that the formula holds true for n = k + 1, i.e. that 15^(k + 1) - 1 is divisible by 7)

BUT, what exactly is 15^(k + 1) - 1 ? Let's evaluate that.

15^(k + 1) - 1 = 15*(15^k) - 1

What I'm going to do is split 15*(15^k) as 14(15^k) + 1(15^k).

= 14(15^k) + 1(15^k) - 1
= 14(15^k) + (15^k) - 1

I'm going to place the last two terms in square brackets to prove a point.

= 14(15^k) + [ (15^k) - 1 ]

Look at this expression; the second half of this expression is divisible by 7 because 15^k - 1 being divisible by 7 is our induction hypothesis.
The first half, 14(15^k), is OBVIOUSLY divisible by 7, since
14(15^k) = (7*2)(15^k).

That means we have the sum of two things divisible by 7, which means as a whole,

14(15^k) + [ (15^k) - 1 ]

is divisible by 7, and the above expression is equal to

15^(k + 1) - 1

Therefore, the formula holds true for n = k + 1.

And thus, by the Principle of Mathematical Induction,

15^n - 1 is divisible by 7 for all integers n >= 0.

Question 2; Mark: 5
A club consists of four memebers.How many sample points are in the sample space when three officers; president, secretary and treasurer, are to be chosen?
Kindly wait for the second questions solution

Course STA301

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Assignment No.4 (Course STA301)
Spring 2009 (Total Marks 30)

Your Assignment must be uploaded/ submitted before or on
23:59 (Mid Night), 4th June, 2009
Rules for Marking
It should be clear that your Assignment will not get any credit IF:
• The Assignment submitted, via email, after due date.
• The submitted Assignment is not found as MS Word document file.
• There will be unnecessary, extra or irrelevant material.
• The Statistical notations/symbols are not well-written i.e., without using MathType software.
• The Assignment will be copied from handouts, internet or from any other student’s file. Copied material (from handouts, any book or by any website) will be awarded ZERO MARKS. It is PLAGIARISM and an Academic Crime.
• The medium of the course is English. Assignment in Urdu or Roman languages will not be accepted.
• Assignment means Comprehensive yet precise accurate details about the given topic quoting different sources (books/articles/websites etc.). Do not rely only on handouts. You can take data/information from different authentic sources (like books, magazines, website etc) BUT express/organize all the collected material in YOUR OWN WORDS. Only then you will get good marks.

Objective(s) of this Assignment:

• The assignment is being uploaded to strengthen the knowledge of different types of probability distributions.
• To give the practice that how to use a probability distribution for a particular problem.

Question 1 10 Marks
(a) If the joint probability distribution of X and Y is given by


(b) An electrical firm manufactures light bulbs that have a length of life that is normally distributed with mean equal to 800 hours and a standard deviation of 40 hours. Find the probability that a bulb burns
(i) Less than 778 hours.
(ii) Between 778 and 834 hours.
Question 2 20 Marks
(a) The average number of days school is closed due to snow during the winter in a certain city in the eastern part of United States is 4.What is the probability that the school in this city will close for 2 or more days during winter?
(b) Is there any inconsistency in the statement that the mean of a binomial distribution is 20 and its standard deviation is 4? If no inconsistency is found what shall be the values of p, q and n.

Attempting Methodology / Requirements of the Assignment
• This assignment covers Lesson No 26 to Lesson No 30
• In Short answer question you can express your answer in 4-10 lines.
• Illustrating your point you can give short examples
• In numerical question, proper notation and symbols must be well written. For this use MathType Software.
• Solve numerical step-by-step, giving all necessary explanation, whenever necessary.

Solution is coming soon in anytime.


Dear fellows kindly follow the blog and keep visiting vu helps Thanks.

Question No.1
Write a final collection letter to a company Rahman Builders Cavalry Ground for unpaid Rs.500, 000/-, which is five months overdue. The company has failed to entertain any of your requests for the above amount.

Ans 1

Mehdi traders,
The mall sadder,

June 1,2009,

Mr.Rahman Ahmad,
The general manager,
Rahman builders,
Cavalry ground,
Dear Mr. Rahman,

Our collection department has informed me about your credit, that you have failed to answer any of our request and appeal for payment of Rs 500000/-, which is over due by four months.
As a general manager of Mehdi traders, I personally appeal you to settle the matter before I take some legal action. You can make me a telephone call to settle the matter out of court.
Therefore I ask you to contact me by 15th of this month to resolve the issue. Otherwise I will take the legal action to collect the payment, which is not good for you and us.

Yours truly,

Mehdi khan
General manager.

Kh/n k

Question No.2

Write an interoffice memorandum to the staff being a president of a company about the merger (to be part of another organization) of your company with ABC Company; also make it clear to the staff that their previous jobs will be retained and mention the details of benefits provided in the new company.

Ans 2


To: Mr.Abbas from: Zain mehdi
Dept: marketing President
Subject: merger of the company. Date: June 1, 2009.

It is to inform you about the merger of our company with Jahangeer traders.
In the current situation it was beneficial for our company to work with Jahangeer traders. So management has decided to become part of Jahangeer traders. Now our company is a part of Jahangeer traders.
It is good news for you that, all the employees will retain the same position and job in the new company that they had in the old one. More over some new benefits will be provided in the company, those are as follows.
1) Bonus pay and extra allowances
2) Pick and drop service
3) Children education
4) Flex work time.
It is expected that you will work with the same devotion and dedication for the company.